Instability (Hypermobility)

A condition in the spine which results in excessive motion occurring between two or more vertebrae. It is usually the result of degenerative changes in the spine. This most often occurs when one vertebrae slips forward with respect to another vertebrae (spondylolisthesis). Flexion-extension x-rays are often helpful in making this diagnosis. A fusion is sometimes required to stabilize this section of the spine.

Inpatient Surgery

When a patient stays overnight in a hospital after their surgery.

Informed Consent

Permission obtained from a patient to perform a specific test or procedure. Informed consent is required before performing most invasive procedures and before admitting a patient to a research study. This document describes the procedure or test and associated risks.


The protective response of body tissue to irritation or injury.

Incentive Spirometer

A device that measures the volume of inhaled air. It is usually used after surgery to provide adequate lung expansion and oxygenation to all sections of the lungs.