Extrusion (of Disc)

A specific type of herniated disc in which a large amount of disc material breaks through the outer rings of the annulus, usually causing extreme pressure on the nerve(s). In this type of herniation, the base of the herniation is smaller than the tip.

Extraforaminal Decompression

A procedure where bone spurs (osteophytes), cysts, and/or disc herniations are removed from the foramen (bony hole where a nerve exits) to take pressure off of the exiting spinal nerve. The incision is often made more lateral (away from the midline) in order to decompress the nerve from “outside to in” versus a laminotomy where you are decompressing the nerves from “inside to out.”


Abbreviation for an electromyography. A diagnostic procedure to assess the health of muscles and nerves. Small needles are placed in various muscles and the response of the muscles to electrical current is interpreted by a specialist.


Abbreviation for electrocardiogram. A test in which a graphic record is produced to record the electrical activity of the heart to detect abnormal transmissions of heart impulses through the conductive tissues of the heart muscles. An EKG allows diagnosis of specific cardiac abnormalities. Leads are affixed to certain points on the patient’s chest, usually with an adhesive gel that promotes transmission of the electric impulses to the recording device. The patient is positioned lying down on his or her back on an examining table and asked to lie still during the test. It takes approximately 30 minutes to complete.